The case for vitamin D supplementation in multiple sclerosis

source: http://www.msard-journal.com/article/S2211-0348(13)00002-3/fulltext

Highlights

  • Vitamin D meets Hill criteria of correlation, plausibility for altering MS activity.
  • The temporality, dose-response, and reversibility criteria are yet to be fully met.
  • Supplementation seems well-tolerated; long-term safety and optimum dose are unclear.
  • Supplementation may reduce inflammation, relapse risk, and/or disability in MS.
  • More prospective cohorts and double-blind RCTs with placebo/comparator arms needed.

Abstract

Introduction

Given that vitamin D has a role in immunomodulation, and its levels appear to correlate with the development of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), it is conceivable that vitamin D may also influence disease activity in MS patients. In this regard, we conducted a systematic review investigating the evidence for: (1) the role of vitamin D in disease activity in MS, and (2) the therapeutic supplementation of vitamin D in MS.

Methods

A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Pubmed, clinical trials registries, and conference proceedings, followed by screening and application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielded 57 studies for detailed appraisal. Following careful data extraction, studies addressing the role of vitamin D in disease activity were appraised on the basis of common epidemiological principles, while those involving vitamin D supplementation were assessed for potential bias using Cochrane guidelines. The overall evidence was interpreted in the context of the Bradford-Hill criteria of causation, and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient from relapsing over a year was calculated for each supplementation study examining relapse rate.

Results/Discussion

Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have fairly consistently demonstrated a strong positive correlation between vitamin D deficiency and subsequent relapse and/or disability in patients with MS. As well, there appears to be a negative correlation between vitamin D levels and inflammatory markers in MS patients, suggesting that vitamin D modifies serum cytokines to a more anti-inflammatory profile. Therefore, vitamin D fulfills the Bradford-Hill criteria for strong and consistent association, biological plausibility, and coherence. However, the criteria of temporality, dose-response, and experimental evidence are yet to be adequately met, although there is preliminary evidence from longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of supplementation that vitamin D can attenuate the autoimmune response in patients, and potentially reduce relapse rates and burden of disease. Currently published data on relapse prevention with vitamin D indicates the possibility of small NNTs in the range of 1.36–25.00, but they arise from very heterogeneously designed studies.

Conclusions

Ultimately, the current evidence does not permit inference of a causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and disease activity in MS. Vitamin D supplementation appears to be a promising treatment worthy of further exploration, but owing to the paucity of RCTs with placebo or comparator arms, the evidence is not definitive and appropriate dosing remains uncertain.

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Vitamin D kills the flu virus… YouTube Repost

Published on Aug 17, 2009

Did you know JP-8 jet fuel exposure suppresses the immune response to viral infections?-
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19…

So why are they spraying chemtrails or chemical contrails which block out natural sunlight? WHY are they doing this? If the World Health Organisation were so concerned about the swine flu pandemic they would be aware that natural sunlight is a very good source for the body to make vitamin D and would be concerned about the artificial cloud covering which is being created by aircraft now worldwide. My first videos in April 2009 started with the heavy chemtrail spraying in my area showing blue skies turn a hazy white blocking out the sun for the rest of the day. I know from users who contact me that there is a 24/7 campaign of chemical spraying in the atmosphere in the USA. From my research I found that chemicals could be added to aviation fuel. Please see my video:
CHEMTRAILS CHEMICALS ADDED TO AVIATION FUEL GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT NOW ONLINE-
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gIPgdZ… For the DEFRA documents.

DEFRA says chemicals added to aviation fuel can be a cost effective way to spray a so-called protective screen as to block out the suns rays and reduce global warming. ( This however would have an opposite effect. Please look up Global Dimming and the Hydrological Cycle on Google. ) BUT, is this really about protecting the earth or is it about stopping you receiving natural sunlight and making vitamin D?

Vitamin D is important for helping the immune system fight the flu virus. One reason why the flu may be more contagious in the winter time is because of the lack of sunlight. The lack of sunlight prevents our skin from producing sufficient levels of vitamin D. There is now documented evidence about the roles of solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D in reducing case-fatality rates from the 1918-1918 influenza Pandemic in EU.

I quote: There are two mechanisms whereby vitamin D can reduce the risk of death once the pandemic influenza virus infection took hold: reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced risk of bacterial pneumonia.

The type of vitamin D which can fight viruses can ONLY be made from natural sunlight. It is known as D3, which is made from sunlight when 7-dehydrocholesterol in our skin reacts with UV light.

I quote: It is then twice activated in the liver and kidney to make 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This attaches to receptors on genes that control their expression, which turn protein production on or off. Vitamin D regulates the expression of more than 1,000 genes throughout the body. They include genes in macrophages, cells in the immune system that, among other things, ATTACK AND DESTROY VIRUSES.

A report in The Washington Post on August 3rd 2009 says:
Millions of Children In U.S. are Found to Be Lacking Vitamin D-
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/…

There are articles documenting that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight before immunization suppresses systemic as well as local immune responses- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19…

Which mean the vaccination doesnt work so well as a unsuppressed immune response is needed to build up anti-bodies and immunity to that particular vaccine. So another reason to block out the natural sunlight.

If our governments were so concerned about the swine flu surely they would put a stop to these climate change experiments which blocks out everyones natural sunlight. The fact that they or the media will not even report on the chemtrails happening above us only leads me to be more suspicious of what the chemical spraying is really about.

Epidemic Influenza And Vitamin D-
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/artic…

Repeated Aerosol-vapor JP-8 Jet Fuel Exposure Affects Neurobehavior and Neurotransmitter Levels in a Rat Model-
http://www.scribd.com/doc/17102227/Ba…

This video is a re-upload from tarot1984s channel-
http://www.youtube.com/user/tarot1984